Archeologia Siciliana

English info...

1) SOLUNTO: A Punic city founded by the middle of the 4lh cent. with a strong Greek influence. Some great remains of a large square, a theatre, an odeon and part of the old streets.

2) ADDAURA: A few caves with Palaeolithic engravings, on the west slope of Mount Pellegrino, Palermo.

3) MONTE JATO: 30 km. away from Palermo. Some ruins of a Hellenistic time theatre, the stage structure, the agora, and a few houses.

4) SEGESTA: 4 km. away from Calatafimi, its origins date back b the age of Elimi (people descending from the merge between Sioanians - the first inha bitants of Sicily - and fugitives from Troy). Because of its rivalry towards Selinunte, it caused the intervention by Athenians in ihe year 415 and by Carthaginians in 409. The very well preserved Doric temple is a peristyle of the second half of the 5th cent. The 3rd century theatre on the top of a hill is still well preserved, with its tiers divided into seven wedge-shaped parts and iutting out parascenia.

5) ERICE: An Elimian city in a wonderful position. Renowned in ancient times for the sanctuary of the Fertility Goddess (whose name was Aslarte for Phoenicians, Aphrodite for Greeks and Venus for Romans).

6) MOZIA: A Punic city in a small island 8 km from Marsala. Some huge ruins of defensive works all around the island and an interesting "Tophet" area where children sacrifices took place.

7) MARSALA: Once called Lilibeo, it was a Sicanian city where exiles from Mozia moved, followed by the ones from Selinunte. Some important fortifications defended it from Pyrrhus and the Romans but it was finally defeated after Egadi Battle in 242. There are many graves left as well as funeral niches containing Phoenician and Greek inscriptions, some houses and remains of publics buildings with large rooms decorated with both geometric and figurative mosaics. A Punic boat drawn out of Stagnone waters is kept at Baglio Anselmi.

8) SELINUNTE: It was founded in 650 by settlers coming from Megara Hyblea, and destroyed by Carthaginians in 409 and 250. There are some huge fortifications dating back to 5lh-6lh cent. all around the acropolis, the Doric "C" temple on the outskirts, three big temples (E, F and G) some magnificent remains of houses.

9) ERACLEA MINOA: Close to the mouth of the river Platani, it was a frontier - city between the influence of Agrigento and Selinunte, then of Siceliols and Carthaginians. Some defence walls and a 3rd century theatre.

10) AGRIGENTO: Founded by people from Gela in 583. A marvellous temples valley bounded on the northern side by the Rupe Atenea and by the Greek city acropolis. In the archaeological park you can admire Demetra's Doric temple, Ctonian Gods' sanctuary, Juno's temple, the temple of Concord, Hercules's and Olympian Jupiter's temples as well as the temples of Dioscurj, Esculapio. A rich archaeological museum is to be held in great consideration.

11) GELA: Founded by Cretans around 689, it was the main city until Gelone moved the seat of power to Syracuse in 485. It was destroyed by Carthaginians in 405, rebuilt by Timoleonte and then destroyed once and for all by Mamertins at the beginning of the 3rd century. Some ruins of two temples of Athena's, houses, huge defence works on the hill of Cape Soprano, and an important archaeological museum.

12) CENTURIPE: Its origins date back to the age of Siculi (people who arrived in Sicily from Southern Italy many years after Sicani). It grew under Greeks and developed under Romans. During ancienttimes it was renowned for ceramics and polychrome tempera - painted pottery. A marble building of Augustales and some remains of public structures.

13) PIAZZA ARMERINA: A wonderful Roman villa of the 3rd - 4th cent. A.D., including thermal baths, peristyles, courtyards and arcades, is in "Contrada Casale". Many marvellous and matchless mosaics cover almost every room with figures representing mythological and historical subjects as well as scenes from everyday life. The Villa Filosofana of Casale is unforgettable.

14) MORGANTINA: A Greek and Sicul city rebuilt several times and finally destroyed by Romans in 211 B.C., where it is possible to see some remains of the city walls, of many public buildings in the Agora, and some private houses containing mosaics and arcades.

15) CAMARINA: Founded by Syracusians at the end of the 6th cent. Some remains of Athena's temple and of city walls. Ippodamo - styled urban frame is near to an interesting necropolis where some rich funeral outfits, now kept in Syracuse Museum, were discovered.

16) SYRACUSE: First onginated in the small island of Ortigia, it later extended toward the mainland with its Acradina, Tyche and Neapolis quarters and with Eliopoli stronghold. For a very long time it struggled against Carthaginians, Athenians and Romans by whom it was conquered in 212. It is very important as far as archaeology is concerned because of the ruins of the archaic Apollion and Temple, the Athenian, some military buildings such as Eurialo castle, the superb and magnificent Greek theatre, the majestic altar of Gelone ll, and the Roman amphitheatre.

17) PALAZZOLO ACREIDE: A Syracuse settlements in 664. Some huge remains of the urban frame, the lower part of a Doric temple, a 3rd century theatre, the Bouleutherion and Latomie.

18) PANTALICA: In the Anapo valley, it is thought to be the ancient Ibia, capital of a natives' reign from eight to seven hundred years B.C. On its calcareous walls there are 5.000 small cave-shaped graves typical of the late Bronze Age.

19) MEGARA HYBLEA: An urban settlement corresponding to today's harbour of Augusta. Under Syracuse's influence, it was destroyed by the Romans of Marcello during the 2nd Punic war. A few remains of the agora and city streets. Some important Doric statues as well as pottery, now kept in Syracuse Museum, were discovered.

20) CATANIA: it was founded by Calcidians in 729, then settlers from Syracuse came and renamed it Aitna. During the time of Augusta it had its golden age. There is a very important roman theatre with a horseshoe shaped auditorium divided into nine wedges and marble orchestra and stage. A half - circled Odeon and its outdoor portico are close to the theatre.

21) NAXOS: First Greek settlement in Sicily, it was founded by Calcidians in 736. It took part in every war against Syracuse and formed an alliance with Athens until it was destroyed by Dioniso of Syracuse in 413. Some remains of the city walls, Aphrodite's temple and build - up areas.

22) TAORMINA: It was founded in 358 B.C. and remained under Syracuse's influence until it was conquered by Romans. The Greek time left a temple close to the Odeon and Serapeion. The bricks Greek theatre has an upper gallery and an outdoor arcade as well as a stage outlook with large niches beyond columns. Some remains of the gymnasium, a two naves pool and thermae.

23) TINDARI: It was founded in 396 B.C. by Dionisio I of Syracuse. A 4lhcant. B.C. theatre reodapted for circus games in the imperial age is to be seen, as well as a basilica very interesting for its barrel - vaults interposed by arches, a sort of prelude to the great Roman architecture.

24) IMERA: Neighbouring to Termini Imerese, it was founded by the Calcidians of Zancle (Messina) in the latter half of the 7th cent. There are a sacred zone with three temples and a few remains of build - up areas. The peripteral Doric temple of Victory is just outside the city boundary.

25) AEOLIAN ISLANDS: Lipari and the six nearby islands were inhabited since prehistoric period and were also an important trade - spreading centre during Neolithic age until historical time. They were colonized by Rhodians during the 6th and 5th century. They fought together with Syracuse against Carthage, and later with Carthage against Rome. Lipari's Archaeological Museum is one of the most important in Sicily.


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